Although a lot of people are familiar with the idea that at night you can make your eyes darker or perhaps go heavier on your makeup, there's a bit more to it than that. Let's break it down a bit further:
The two main differences that affect how you change your makeup for day vs night are 1. Lighting and 2. Mood. During the day, daylight makes everything ultra visible, so you need to be wary of how much you are using, especially when it comes to skin products like foundation or highlighter. Heavier foundations and powders become highly noticeable, which can draw people's attention--and not in a good way. If you do feel like you need full coverage for your skin, try to apply just a thin layer of foundation, and then use concealer exactly where you need the additional coverage, rather than doing heavy foundation all over. If you wanna see exactly what I mean, check out my tutorial for covering acne, which demonstrates this technique perfectly. You also want to make sure you aren't piling on a ton of shimmer on your skin (shimmer on the eyes is OK) in the form of highlighters or overly shimmery blush. A little glow is OK, but sunlight reflects harshly off of shimmer and can quickly turn you into a greasy-looking disco ball--again drawing attention in a not-so-ideal way. Over all, keeping your makeup and 'look' a bit lighter for daytime will make sure your makeup enhances your appearance...rather than distracting from it. The last thing to consider for day is to match the mood of either the occasion (like going to work vs going to a baseball game etc) or whatever mood you yourself are in! In general, creating a nice balanced look like this one I suggest for work is a good starting point, but you can totally do more or less depending on your style. Try to assess when/where it's appropriate for you to wear more or less makeup, when you can express your personality more (if that's your thing), or when you should keep your look a bit more conservative. Then you can bring some of your own mood into the mix by making your look a bit more fun, more girly, more androgynous...whatever you yourself are feeling that day!
When it comes to makeup for night, you have the most freedom of all to express yourself and do a bit more than you would during daytime. Obviously at night you are typically dealing with lower lighting, which means makeup will automatically become less visible. If you really want to pop, you can do more makeup than you typically would during the day, including more foundation, shimmery highlighters, etc that don't fare so well in broad daylight. You can also define your eyes more with darker shadows and eyeliner, go further with color, and so on. The mood at night is pretty different than during the day, so you can also go for a more sultry or sexy vibe, lean towards looking more polished, or expressing yourself in whatever way you see fit for the environment you'll be in. The goal is not to pile on as much makeup as possible, but to add in whatever will bring you to life once the sun, constraints of work, etc are no longer a factor.